University of Palermo

The University of Palermo (UNIPA) counts 122 first and second cycle courses, 44 master and specialization courses, and 23 PhD courses, attracting on average 10,000 first-year students every year. The Law Department of UNIPA (DIGI) is a place where many of the most authoritative jurists in the Italian and European context were trained and have taught, a national relevance which has been recently confirmed by its inclusion in the Ministerial program "Departments of Excellence 2018-2022". The main research areas in which DIGI is involved are: Human Rights and International Law; Democracy and Rule of law; State borders and human mobility, Citizenship, Asylum and Migration.

Marco Brigaglia, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Legal Philosophy.

His main research topics are the theory of practical normativity and the naturalization of normativity. He is working on psychological models of rule-following and rule-based reasoning, with a special focus on the psychological dynamics underlying normative powers and authoritative relations. In the frame of the RECOGNISE project, he will teach a course on “Legal Reasoning and Cognitive Science” at the University of Palermo in Spring 2022 and 2023.


Bruno Celano, PhD, is full professor of Philosophy of Law at the University of Palermo.

He is member of the scientific committee of the peer-reviewd journals Ragion Pratica; Diritto&Questioni Pubbliche; Legal Theory; Analisi e diritto; Revus-European Constitutionality Review.
His main research interests include defeasible legal and practical reasoning, particularistic and rule-based decision making, and the logic of everyday reasoning and planning as compared to machine reasoning. Celano’s relevant publication in the field are Exploring the Background: puzzles, afterthoughts, and replies, Pre-Conventions. A Fragment of the Background, Publicity and the Rule of Law, Law as Power: Two Rule of Law Requirements, True Exceptions: Defeasibility and Particularism.

Aldo Schiavello, PhD, is full professor of Philosophy of Law at the University of Palermo.

He is co-director of  Diritto&Questioni Pubbliche, member of the scientific committee of Ragion Pratica and Rivista di Filosofia del diritto, as well as member of the advisory board of Ethics&Politics and Discusiones. He is actually Dean of the Law Department (DIGI), and coordinator of the Project of National Relevance “The Dark Side of the Law”. His main research interests include the theory of legal reasoning, constitutional interpretation, and the role of authority in practical reasoning.  Recently he has published in English Rules, Conventionalism and Normativity: Some Remarks Starting from Hart, and The Third Theory of Legal Objectivity.

Giuseppe Rocchè

Giuseppe Rocchè, PhD, research fellow.

His research topics focus on population ethics, human rights, practical reasoning, and moral psychology.

University of Alicante

The University of Alicante is a Spanish public university based in San Vicente del Raspeig, next to the city of Alicante. It has started operating recently in 1979 after that university studies had been suspended in 1834.
It currently offers more than fifty official and graduate and postgraduate degrees. It has more than seventy university departments and research units and groups in areas of social and legal sciences, experimental, technological, humanities, education and health sciences, as well as with five research institutes. The community has about 3.800 employees considering both professors and members of the administrative staff, as well as 32.000 students.
The University of Alicante is a bilingual academic institution with a straightforward international vocational. Every year, about 2.000 Spanish students coming from other regions of Spain and about 1.200 foreign students choose the University of Alicante as the place to continue their studies.

Manuel Atienza

Manuel Atienza is Professor of Philosophy of Law at the University of Alicante, director of Doxa magazine and has been vice president of the World Association of Legal and Social Philosophy.

His works include Las piezas del Derecho (1996), El Derecho como argumentación (2006), La guerra de las falacias (2008) and Curso de argumentación jurídica
(2013). Doctor Honoris Causa by various Latin American Universities. Member of the National Commission for Assisted Human Reproduction and member of the drafting Commission of the Model Code of Judicial Ethics, within the Ibero-American Judicial Summit. He has participated as a teacher in various doctorate courses and training courses for magistrates in both Spain and Latin America.

Josep Aguiló

Josep Aguiló is Professor of Philosophy of Law at the University of Alicante. He is member of the Advisory board of Doxa since its foundation.

His works include Sobre sobre la derogación. Ensayo de dinámica jurídica (1995), Teoría general de las fuentes del Derecho y del orden jurídico (2000), La Constitución del Estado constitucional (2004), Fragmentos para una teoría de la Constitución (with M. Atienza y J. Ruiz Manero, 2007), Sobre Derecho y Argumentación (2008); and the articles Nullity, Derogation and Normative power, Buenos y Malos: Sobre el valor epistémico de las actitudes morales y de las prudenciales, La Derogación en pocas palabra, Técnica Legislativa y documentación automática de legislación, El método jurídico como argumentación jurídica, Presunciones, verdad y normas procesales, Imparcialidad y aplicación de la ley, Dos concepciones de la ética judicial. He has participated as a teacher in various doctorate courses and training courses for magistrates in both Spain and Latin America.

Daniel González Lagier

Daniel González Lagier is Professor of Philosophy of Law at the University of Alicante.

He is the author of the books Acción y norma en G. H. von Wright (1995), G. H. von Wright y los conceptos básicos del Derecho (2001), The Paradoxes of Action (2003), Quaestio Facti. Ensayos sobre prueba,  causalidad y acción (2005) y Emociones,  responsabilidad y Derecho (2009), in addition to other publications in specialized magazines. He is a member of the Editorial board of Doxa, Cuadernos de Filosofía del Derecho and of the Advisory board of Analisi e Diritto, Isonomía y Discusiones. His main lines of research are the theory of the norm, the theory of action, the theory of proof and the theory of legal argumentation. He has taught courses and conferences at national and foreign universities and institutions, such as the University of Oriente (Cuba), Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Mar del Plata (Argentina), Universidad del Sur (Argentina), Córdoba (Argentina), Genoa (Italy), ITAM (Mexico), Institute of Philosophical Research of UNAM (Mexico).

Rafael Buzón

Rafael Buzón is assistant professor of Philosophy of law at the University of Alicante.


University of Bologna

The University of Bologna is the oldest university in the Western world. With five campuses (Bologna, Cesena, Forlì, Ravenna, Rimini) and a branch in Buenos Aires, it offers over 200 degree programmes to over 82,000 students. 3,600 graduates are enrolled in PhDs and other 3rd-cycle programmes. It takes part in RECOGNISE through ALMA-AI, a research center devoted to AI and the humanities. The centre hosts a Cognitive Science and Legal Theory Laboratory devoted to experimental studies on legal conceptualisation.

Stefania D’Ascenzo is a Cognitive Psychologist, working as a postdoc at the University of Bologna.

She received her PhD in Neuroscience from the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Her research interests are focused on the cognitive processing underling attention (specifically considering cognitive control and its interaction with arousal), numerical cognition and affordance. Recently she has been interested in language, focusing on institutional and legal concepts in an embodied and grounded perspective. The research methodology used is based on the implementation of experimental paradigms to detect behavioural (i.e., reaction time) and oculomotor response (i.e., saccade latency, pupil dilation).

Luisa Lugli is associate professor in Cognitive Psychology at the University of Bologna.

Her main research interests concern: studies in the context of the embodied perspective of cognition: processing and representation of concepts, the influence of language in categorization processes, interaction  high-level cognitive processes (language processing and numerical cognition) and motor system, effects of grasping and use of objects in a social perspective; and studies on the cognitive-motor processes involved in the orientation of attention; spatial compatibility and Simon effect; interaction between emotions and gaze orientation; joint action and joint attention processes.

Corrado Roversi is associate professor in Philosophy of Law at the University of Bologna.

He holds a PhD from the State University of Milan. His research is focused on legal ontology and the phenomenology and cognitive sciences of institutional concepts. He co-edited A Treatise of Legal Philosophy and General Jurisprudence, and Law as an Artifact. Among his publications are: Conceptualizing Institutions, How Social Institutions Can Imitate Nature, On the Artifactual – and Natural – Character of Legal Institutions; Cognitive Science and the Nature of Law. He is assistant editor of the legal philosophy journal Ratio Juris.

Michele Ubertone is a lawyer and a postdoc at ALMA-AI.

He wrote his Ph.D. thesis in Legal Philosophy on the role of experts in trials. His current research focuses on legal concepts, the division of cognitive labor in the legal domain, and the distinction between questions of fact and questions of law. He co-edited the book Il diritto debole. Mutazione del diritto e nuove forme di normatività. He is a member of the editorial staff of the legal philosophy journal Ratio Juris.

Caterina Villani is a Ph.D. student in Cognitive Science at the University of Bologna.

Her research investigates how abstract concepts are represented, acquired, and used in an embodied and grounded perspective. Her main research interest is on the interplay between language and cognition, which she addresses using behavioural and linguistic methods. Recently she examined how institutional and legal concepts are represented as a function of intraindividual experiences.

Jagiellonian University in Krakow

Jagiellonian University in Krakow (UJ) is the oldest University in Poland, founded in 1364. Today, the UJ comprises 16 Faculties, where nearly 4 thousand academics conduct research and provide education to almost 40 thousand students, within the framework of more than 150 different fields of study. The Faculty of Law and Administration, also founded in 1364, consistently ranks as the best Faculty of Law in Poland.

Bartosz Brożek is a Full Professor of Jurisprudence, Director of the Copernicus Center for Interdisciplinary Studies and Vice-Dean of the Faculty of Law and Administration of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow.

He holds PhDs both in law (2003) and philosophy (2007). He has authored or co-authored over twenty book monographs, co-edited over twenty collections of essays and published almost 100 peer-reviewed articles or contributed chapters. His research interests include legal philosophy, philosophy of mind, theories of reasoning, moral and mathematical cognition, as well as history of ideas.

Bartłomiej Kucharzyk holds PhD in law and MA in psychology. He is the director of Future Law Lab at the Law and Administration Faculty, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, where he works as a researcher.

He is also a member of the Copernicus Center for Interdisciplinary Studies. His research interests include law of evidence, empirical legal studies and experimental psychology in legal context.

Political Science graduate, interested in the philosophy of politics and post-structuralism.

She gained her experience on the board of the Student’s Scientific Council at the Jagiellonian University, the board of the Doxo Tronica association as well as the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Poland to the United Nations in New York. At Copernicus Center, she is responsible for media relations and popularisation of science.

Marek Jakubiec holds PhD in legal philosophy from Jagiellonian University, Kraków, where he is currently an assistant professor.

His research interests embrace legal philosophy, cognitive science (especially embodied cognition), and philosophy of mind. He is a coordinator of the first Polish MOOC platform Copernicus College and a member of the Copernicus Center for Interdisciplinary Studies in Kraków.

Tomasz Zygmunt is a PhD student at Jagiellonian University Faculty of Law and a member of the Copernicus Center for Interdisciplinary Studies in Krakow.

His research interests focus on legal reasoning and legal intuition. In particular, he analyzes the usefulness of the psychological phenomena of insight and expert intuition for the reinterpretation of the concept of hard legal cases in legal theory. His recent work on that matter has been published in Utrecht Law Review:

Przemysław Pałka is an assistant professor at the Future Law Lab, Jagiellonian Law, and an Affiliated Fellow at the Information Society Project, Yale Law School.

Interested in the intersections of law, society, philosophy and technology; in particular in questions regarding data governance, consumer protection online and automation of legal tasks. Holds a PhD (2017) and an LL.M. (2014) from the European University Institute in Florence, and an MA (2013) from the University of Warsaw.

University of Ljubljana

University of Ljubljana (UL) was founded in 1919 and currently integrates 23 faculties and three arts academies. Ever since its foundation, UL has been the largest and highest quality Slovenian scientific and research organization, presently covering all research and artistic fields. Faculty of Law, a founding member of UL, is not only the oldest but also the largest and the best law faculty in Slovenia. The faculty boasts a large teaching staff working in nine departments, six further associated research institutes, and the most extensive law library in the region. It offers its students an intellectually exciting learning environment with high academic standards.

Aleš Novak is Assistant Professor at the University of Ljubljana Law Faculty.

He teaches Introduction to Jurisprudence, Legal Philosophy and Legal Methodology, Introduction to Comparative Law and Legal Ethics. He also lectures frequently in educational courses for Slovenian judiciary and has lectured at Slovenian Bar Academy. His research interests include legal theory, legal philosophy (especially legal reasoning) and history of (legal and political) ideas.

Kristina Čufar is a Teaching Assistant at the University of Ljubljana (Faculty of Law) with the department for Legal Theory and Sociology.

Her research interests include legal philosophy and theory, especially critical legal theory, feminist and queer legal theory, and law and the humanities. Kristina holds a Ph.D. from the European University Institute and was awarded grants to spend periods as a visiting researcher at the London School of Economics and the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law.

Miha Hafner is an Assistant Professor at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Law, where he teaches Criminal Procedure Law.

He is also employed as a researcher at the Institute of Criminology at the Faculty of Law. Apart from various topics in the domain of criminal procedure, his research interests lay at the intersections of criminal law and neuroscience as well as (criminal) law and psychology. Miha holds a PhD in Criminal law from the University of Ljubljana and an MPhil in Criminology from the University of Cambridge.

Maastricht University

Maastricht University (UM) is the youngest university in the Netherlands yet has a strong international outlook with a focus on high-quality and innovative research. Situated in the heart of Europe, with 40% of its employees and 50% of its students from abroad (100+ countries), UM is known for its international character. The Faculty of Law is one of the six faculties in the UM. The research focus is on comparative studies, on European law, international economic law, and Law and Technology. It provides a minor in Human and Legal Decision-Making.

Jaap Hage studied both law and philosophy in Leiden and works since 1989 at Maastricht University, where he holds the chair of jurisprudence.

He has taught many different courses, including Introduction to Law, Legal Philosophy and Logic. His research has focused on legal theory, in particular legal logic and legal ontology (basic legal concepts), social ontology, and – more recently – law and the cognitive sciences. He is the author or (co-)editor of many scientific articles and books, including Reasoning with Rules, Studies in Legal Logic, Foundations and Building Blocks of Law, and Introduction to Law.

Rūta Liepiņa is an Assistant Professor in Digital Legal Studies at the Maastricht Faculty of Law.

She is a researcher at Maastricht Law and Tech Lab and M-EPLI. Her research interests revolve around the topics of legal reasoning, argumentation, and data science. She completed her PhD on ‘Reasoning about Causes and Evidence in Law’ at European University Institute (2020).

Kody Moodley is an Assistant Professor in Data Science at the Institute of Data Science at Maastricht University.

He is also affiliated with the Maastricht Law & Tech Lab, co-organises the UM Data Science Research Seminar Series and has served on the program committee for the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) and the International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC). Kody’s current research focuses on the use of ontologies and knowledge graphs to structure and reason about legal information, and the use of computational methods to capture patterns in how legal decision-making is implemented in the EU.

Alexandru Daniel On

Alexandru Daniel On is an Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Law of Maastricht University.

He holds an LL.B. degree from Babeş-Bolyai University in Cluj-Napoca (2010), an LL.M. in Private Law from Babeş-Bolyai University (2011), an LL.M. in Comparative Law from Louisiana State University (2013), and a PhD (cum laude) from Maastricht University (2020). His research and publications are focused on the law of torts, the law of obligations, legal theory, and legal translation.

Antonia M. Waltermann is an Assistant Professor of legal theory and philosophy at Maastricht University.

Her research focuses on explicating foundational concepts of (public) law and, more recently, on non-human agency. For the latter research in particular, she draws also from the cognitive sciences. Her scientific publications include the monograph Reconstructing Sovereignty and the edited volume Law, Science, Rationality.

Henrique Marcos is a Researcher and PhD Candidate in Foundations and Methods of Law at Maastricht University and International and Comparative Law at the University of São Paulo.

He is a Master of Legal Sciences (MSc) at the Federal University of Paraíba (2018) and a Researcher at the Centre for Research on International Courts of the University of São Paulo (NETI-USP) focusing on legal integration and philosophy of international law. He is a Member of the Brazilian Academy of International Law (ABDI).